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NSW Privacy Governance Framework

The Privacy Commissioner of New South Wales, Australia, created this online privacy tool to help NSW Departments and Agencies manage personal information and comply with state privacy laws.Access Tool... Read More

Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989

After the savings and loans crisis of the 1980s, the U.S Congress passed FIRREA to enable financial regulators to levy penalties up to $5,000,000 for failure to comply with regulations. These penalties can be levied if a Financial institution fails to comply with the information privacy requirements contained in GLBA. Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: US 67 Acronym: FIRREA Associated law(s): Gramm-Leach-Bliley  Act... Read More

Financial Industry Regulatory Authority

A corporation that acts as a regulator for brokerage firms and exchange markets. Its primary charge  is to make sure that security exchange markets, such as the New York Stock Exchange, operate fairly and honestly and to protect investors. Although it is a non-governmental regulator, ultimately it is subject to the regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission along with the rest of the security exchange industry. Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: Acronym: FINRA Associated... Read More

Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

In 2010 the U.S. Congress passed the Dodd-Frank Act to reorganize and improve financial regulation. Among other reforms it put in place, the Dodd-Frank Act created the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and granted it rule-making authority over FCRA and GLBA as well as a few other regulations. Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks:  US 71 Associated law(s): Gramm-Leach-Bliley  Act, Fair Credit Reporting Act, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau ... Read More

Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

Created by the Dodd-Frank Act, the consumer financial protection bureau is intended to consolidate the oversight of the financial industry. It is an independent bureau within the Federal Reserve and when it was created CFPB took rule-making authority over FCRA and GLBA regulations from the FTC and Financial Industry Regulators. Its enforcement powers include authority to take action against “abusive acts and practices” as specified by the Dodd-Frank Act. Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textb... Read More

Cybersecurity Bills Comparison Chart

In January 2015, President Obama announced new legislation aimed at enhancing cybersecurity by authorizing information sharing between private and government entities, as well as among private entities. The latest proposal modernizes a previous White House proposal, and contains many of the same elements as the highly contentious Cyber Intelligence Sharing and Protection Act (CISPA) and Cybersecurity Information Sharing Act (CISA). With seemingly overlapping language, it can be difficult to tel... Read More


Phishing targeted at a specific individual or individuals known to be wealthy. Reference(s) in IAPP Certification Textbooks: T150; TSup7 Associated term(s): Spear Phishing, Phishing, Pharming... Read More